Part of the American History & Genealogy Project


News from the Maryland and Green's Gazette

The following items from the Maryland Gazette, Annapolis, Maryland, were transcribed by the late Dr. Christopher Johnston, for many years a member of this Society. These notes, together with all of the other transcripts from County and State records made by Dr. Johnston, have been placed at our disposal through the generosity of Mrs. Johnston and will be, from time to time, reproduced in the pages of the Magazine. A very considerable amount of useful genealogical material will thus be placed within easy access of our readers. Dr. Johnston was noted as an exact and painstaking genealogist and scholar, so that his data may be accepted as quite as evidential as the original records from which they were taken. Its publication may serve as a memorial to our distinguished fellow member.

The dates covered in this and subsequent installments of notes from the Gazette, are from 1728 to 1800, and the transcription includes virtually all of the local items of that period. The first few items are from Parks' Maryland Gazette, published intermittently from 1727 to 1734; but the greater part is of course from Green's Gazette, 1745 to 1839.


December 24th. An Elegy on the Death of the Honorable Nicholas Lowe, Esq.


April 15. The Rev. Mr. Christopher Wilkinson, of St. Paul's Parish, in Queen Anne's County, died last Friday [April 11th].

June 11. On Tuesday last [10 June]. George Plater, Esq. was married to Mrs. Rebecca Bowles, the Relict of James Bowles, Esq.; a Gentlewoman of Considerable Fortune.

And on Friday last, [13 June] died Mr. James Carroll, at the house of Charles Carroll, Esq. in this city.

June 24th Yesterday Evening the Corps of Mr. James Carroll, was interred at the Burial Place of that Family, near this City, in a decent and handsome manner.


Friday, July 12. Epitaph of Capt. John Pritchard, Master of the Ship Cunliffe, who, while bound for Virginia was killed in an action with a French privateer, 17 Jan. 1744/5, act 39 years.

Friday August 16. Williamsburg, July 18. Last Friday evening [July 12] a most terrible Accident happened in Charles City County; when a violent Thunder Gust arose, and the Lightning struck the House of Col. Benjamin Harrison, of Berkly, which killed him, and his two youngest daughters.

September 27. On Wednesday Morning last [Sept. 25] died here in the 55th Year of his Age, Mr. Richard Tootell, who had long been a worthy inhabitant of this Place, and has left behind him the character of a Sober, honest Man.

Tuesday last, [Sept. 24.] died in the bloom of Life, at her Father's House, near this city. Miss Margaret Hill, the only daughter of Mr. Joseph Hill.

December 6. On Friday Night last, [Nov. 29.] died in Prince George's County, Mr. Gabriel Parker, son to Col. Parker of Calvert County. His death was occasioned by a slight Wound received from a Squib, which accidentally hit him on the Jugular Vein; it was taken no Notice of for some time, but at length growing worse, the vein broke, by which means he bled to death. He was a young Gentleman very well esteemed, had been lately married, and died much lamented.


April 8. Last week died in Dorchester County, Mr. Howes Goldsborough, Clerk of that County. He is succeeded in Office by Mr. John Caile.

April 22. On Thursday last, [April 17] died in Caecil County, after a short illness, Mr. William Knight, Clerk and Deputy Commissary for that County; a Gentleman much esteemed by all that knew him.

Tuesday June 3. Last week was married in Talbot County, Robert Jenkins Henry, Esq. of Somerset County, to Miss Gertrude Rousby, a Daughter of the late Honorable John Rousby, Esq; deceased; an agreeable young Lady, with a handsome fortune.

June 10. New York, May 19. Wednesday last [May 14] departed this Life at Trenton, after a lingering illness, in an advanced Age, his Excellency Lewis Morris, Esq., Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Province of New Jersey.

July 15. Annapolis. On Wednesday last [July 9] died here, after a very short illness Mrs. Alicia Ross, wife of John Ross, Esq., of this City. She was a good wife, a tender parent, a sincere friend, and a kind neighbor, so that her death is greatly lamented by all her Acquaintances.

September 23. On Tuesday last, [Sept. 16] one Robert Wilson, a Caulker, being somewhat disordered in his senses, walked into the dock, and was drowned. His body was afterwards taken up. The Jury brought in their verdict, Lunacy.

October 14th. On Tuesday last [Oct. 7] Mr. Robert Lucas, Founder, was drowned on Bodkin Point.

October 21. Last Thursday [Oct. 6] Capt. William Taylor (of the Brigantine Raleigh) knocked overboard by the boom on Sandy Point, and drowned.

December 9. Mr. John Kimber, Mate of Capt. Martin, lately drowned in Chester River.

December 30. On Monday the 22d Instant, died Thomas Brerewood, Esq, late Clerk of Baltimore County. He is succeeded in the said office by Mr. Talbot Risteau.


February 3. A few days since one John Carr, a stay maker of this City, attempting to pass over Patapsco with his Horse, the Ice broke under them, and both were drowned.

February 17, Last Wednesday [Feb. 11] one Joseph Newman killed by accidental discharge of a gun in Queen Anne's County.

April 7. Yesterday Mr. William Hood a ship carpenter killed at West River by a fall from a scaffolding.

April 14. Last Wednesday [April 15] the body of Robert Buck, a servant who belonged to Capt. West, was found drowned in the dock. He had been missing 7 Days.

June 2. Friday last [May 29] Dr. Alexander Hamilton of this City, was married to Miss Margaret Dulany (daughter of the Hon. Daniel Dulany, Esq.) a well accomplished and agreeable young Lady, with a handsome fortune.

June 9. Last Wednesday night [June 4] died here after a short Illness, Miss Anne Ogle, eldest daughter of his Excellency our Governor; a very hopeful and promising young Lady, endowed with a surprising wit, and every endearing quality, beyond most of her tender years, and is greatly lamented.

June 16. Last Saturday [June 13] Mr. Benjamin Chew, of Pennsylvania, was married at West River to Miss Mary Galloway, daughter of Mr. John Galloway, merchant; a young Gentlewoman of beauty, merit, and fortune.

July 14. On Sunday last [July 12] two children, eldest sons of Mr. William Reynolds, hatter of this place, one aged 7, the other about 6 years were accidentally drowned.

July 28. Tuesday last [July 21] Mr. Nicholas MacCubbin, of this City, Merchant, was married to Miss Mary Carroll, only Daughter of Dr. Charles Carroll of this City, a young Gentlewoman blessed with every good Qualification, besides a handsome fortune.

August 11. Williamsburg, July 23. On the 11th instant, John Tayloe, Jun Esq. only son of the Hon. John Tayloe, Esq. one of his Majesty's Council of this Province, was married at the house of Ralph Wormly, Esq. in Middlesex, to Miss Rebecca Plater, daughter of the Hon. George Plater, Esq., one of his Lordship's Council of the Province of Maryland.

September 1. The ship Montague, Capt. John Ellis, late commander, is arrived in James River, Virginia, from London, but last from Gibraltar; Capt. Ellis died on the passage; he often loaded in this Province, was a worthy, honest Commander, and is lamented by all that knew him. Out of 50 men belonging to the said ship, but 15 came in with her, and the Vessel was much shattered by bad Weather.

October 7, Last Saturday [Oct. 3.] one John Lewis was thrown from his horse and killed, in Dorchester County.

October 14th Last Thursday Morning [Oct. 8] died in Queen Anne's County, after a long and lingering indisposition, which he bore with great Patience and Resignation, the Honorable Col. James Hollyday, Naval Officer of the Port of Oxford, Treasurer of the Eastern Shore, and one of his Lordship's Honorable Council. He has left the Character of a worthy Gentleman and a good Christian.

Yesterday Morning [Oct. 13] died at his House at West River, and is much lamented by all that knew him, Mr. John Galloway, Merchant, having left behind him the character of a fair Dealer, and an honest man.

November 18. Last Wednesday, [Nov. 11] died in Dorchester County, Col. Adam Muir, a gentleman beloved and esteemed, not only by those in his own County, but all who had the Pleasure of his Acquaintance, by all whom his Death is much regretted.


January 13. On the 27th of last Month, died at her son's Plantation, near this City, Mrs. Baldwin, a widow gentlewoman, aged 99 or 100 Years. She was remarkably healthful, having never been afflicted with any sickness, or confinement, that she could remember, except about seven years ago, when she had the misfortune of breaking her thigh by a fall from her horse. She retained her senses to the last, and could see to read small print without spectacles; and has left behind her a fair character and a numerous progeny. She was born in this county, and is a manifest instance of the Healthfulness of it; which, tho' some have complained of, yet intemperance, not badness of air, has been too frequently the cause.

February 3. We bear from Charles County, of the Death of Mr. John Courts, who at the time of his death, and had been for many years, a Representative for that County. He died of the pleurisy, after having recovered of the same disorder Twenty-nine times. He was remarkably hospitable, and is much lamented by all his acquaintance.

February 24th Last Thursday Evening [Feb. 18] Edward Dorsey, Esq., Attorney-at-Law was married to Miss Henrietta Maria Chew, an agreeable young lady, with a good fortune.

February 17. John Murphy bearer of an express from the Governor of Pennsylvania (which arrived Sunday 14th inst.) died suddenly on his journey at Patapsco.

May 18. Last Thursday Mr. Henry Hill, a young gentleman of this County was married at West River to Miss Mary Thomas, an agreeable well-accomplished young lady, eldest daughter to the Honorable Philip Thomas Esq., one of his Lordship's Honorable Council. July 13.

On the 22d of last Month died, at his Plantation on Fairly Creek, in Kent County, Mr. William Harris, a Gentleman who was formerly a Representative, and twice Sheriff of that County.

October 19. Last Sunday Evening [Oct. 16] one John Turvey, a lad about 18 years of age, belonging to the Winchester, lying in Severn River, having a dish with a Rump of Beef in it in his hands, fell out of the window into the River and was drowned.

November 30. Lately died in Kent County Mr. George Wilson, a Gentleman so well esteemed in the County where he lived, that they made choice of him in many successive elections, to represent them in Assembly, he being one of the oldest members in the late House.

On the 6th. instant died in Somerset County, Capt. Matthias Gale, (Brother of the late Hon. Levin Gale, Esq.) a gentleman of a mild, affable and courteous disposition; a fair, honest and candid dealer; be was much beloved and esteemed, and his Death is lamented by all his acquaintance.

And on the 7th. died there, to the great Loss of that County, Col. George Dasbiel who bad many years served it as a magistrate and as a Representative, with great fidelity.


January 11. On Monday Evening last [Jan. 9] died at his Plantation near this City, after a tedious indisposition, for above seven months, in the 51st year of his age, Capt. Ezekiel Gillis, one of the Gentlemen of the Commission of the Peace for this County, in which Capacity, as well as that of a Husband, Father, Master, Friend, and neighbor, be acted as became a Christian.

January 25. Last Sunday [Jan. 21] died very suddenly, being seized with a violent pain in one of his Eyes, at Baltimore Town, in Baltimore County, Capt. William Tiffin, He sailed several Voyages out of this Province, was well Beloved, and his death is lamented by all his Acquaintance. February 1. Last Friday [Jan. 27] the Lady of his Excellency our Governor was happily delivered of a son.

February 8. Last Sunday Sennight [Jan. 29] Jonathan Munn, a Cabinet Maker, and Uriah Bond, a Blacksmith, attempting to cross Gunpowder River on the Ice, both fell in and were drowned.

February 15. Last Friday [Feb. 10] died near Cambridge, in Dorchester County, Major Thomas Nevett, who was for many years Chief Justice of that County.

On Sunday last [Feb. 12] died at his house in Talbot County, the Rev. Mr. Henry Nichols, Rector of St. Michael's Parish, in an advanced age; his life was exemplary, and character unblameable, and well worthy of imitation.

March 1. Last Saturday night [Feb. 25] died Madam Rachel Hammond the worthy Consort of the Honorable Col. Charles Hammond, at his Plantation on Severn.

March 15. Last week died at Upper Marlboro, in Prince George's County, Mr. David Crawford, merchant, who was well esteemed, and is generally lamented.

April 6. On Saturday the 18th of March last, died in Dorchester County, in the 39th year of her Age, Mary the wife of Mr. Joseph Bailey, late of Portsmouth in New England, (now resident at Vienna, on Nanticoke River, in the said County and daughter of John and Rosanna Hodson of Dorchester County.

April 19. Mr. Vincent Stewart died, last week in this town, of injuries received during a frolic at a Tavern. He left a wife and six children.

May 24th. Last Friday [May 19] died, at his Plantation on Patuxent River, in this County, after a lingering indisposition, by which he was quite emaciated, in the 56th year of his age, Mr. Thomas Jobson, formerly an inhabitant, and one of the Common Council men of this City; and for near 30 years successively was chosen Sergeant-at-Arms to the Hon. Lower House of Assembly.

June 28. Last Monday [June 25], the Honorable George Plater, Esq., of St. Mary's County, was married to Mrs. Elizabeth Carpenter, widow of Capt. John Carpenter, late of this place, deceased.

August 2. Last Saturday Morning [July 29] died here, very much lamented, after a long and lingering indisposition, in the fiftieth year of his age, and on Sunday evening was decently interred, William Rogers, Esq.; a gentleman born and bred in New England, but bad long been a worthy inhabitant of this place, where he was greatly beloved and esteemed. He enjoyed many Posts of Honor and Trust, which he discharged with judgment and fidelity; and has left a sorrowful widow and three children.

August 9. Sometime in June last one James Taylor was killed by a rattlesnake. He lived on the North West fork of Nanticoke River, in Dorchester County.

August 23. Last Week died the Rev. Mr. Carlisle, Rector of a Parish in Baltimore County.

August 30. Notice of the death of Hon. John Robinson, President of the Council of Virginia [No date given.]

September 20. On Saturday last [Sept. 16] Daniel Dulany, Esq., Junior, Barrister at Law, was married to Miss Rebecca Tasker (Second daughter to the Hon. Benjamin Tasker, of this City, Esq.) a very agreeable young Lady, with a handsome fortune.

Last Friday Morning [Sept. 15] died in Calvert County, Col. Gabriel Parker, a worthy inhabitant of that County, who was many years Chief Justice and Deputy Commissary, and several Times High Sheriff of that County, which Place be held to the time of his death.

October 4. Last Week died in Cecil County Mr. Francis Lee, Clerk of that County.

October 11. On Thursday last [Oct. 5], being the first Day of Baltimore Fair, as some people were riding a race towards evening, Philip Jones (Son of Capt. Philip Jones, junior) a very hopeful youth, who was one of them, fell off his horse, when in full speed, and died in a few minutes, without speaking a word.

October 18. On the Eleventh instant died, at his seat on Wye River in Queen Anne's County, Richard Bennett, Esq., in the Eighty third year of his age, generally lamented by all that knew him. … [long obituary]

November 8. On Wednesday last [Nov. 1] was solemnized the Funeral of Richard Bennett, Esq. of Wye River, in a very handsome and decent manner, by the direction of his sole executor, the Hon. Col. Edward Lloyd.

November 22. A few Days ago died Mr. Humphrey Wells, junior, one of the Justices of Queen Anne's County.

November 29. On Thursday last [Nov. 23] died here, aged 57, and on Monday was decently interred, Mrs. Maria Catherine Minskie, 30 years a resident in this city, and greatly esteemed by her neighbors and acquaintance.

December 13. We hear that on Saturday last [Dec. 9] Henry Hollyday, Esq., High Sheriff of Queen Anne's County, was married in Talbot County to Miss Anne Robins, a well accomplished young gentlewoman with a good fortune.

December 27. On Christmas Day Morning, the Lady of the Honorable Benedict Calvert, Esq. was safely delivered of a daughter.


On Monday last [Jan. 1] died in Frederick County after a few days illness, Mr. John Thomas, High Sheriff of that County, a gentleman who justly merited the esteem of all who knew him, and by whom his death is greatly regretted.

January 10. We have just received the Melancholy news of the death of Osborne Sprigg, Esq., High Sheriff of Prince George's County, on Monday last [Jan. 7]. . . .

January 24th. Last Monday Sennight [Jan. 14] as Alexander Knight, an overseer of Mr. Bordley's, was driving home his cart from town, it accidentally run over him, and bruised him so much that he died soon after.

February 14th. Last week died at Elk Ridge, Col. Henry Dorsey, who was formerly Chief Justice of this County for several Years.

February 21. On the 14th instant one Charles Howard a young man, was killed by the fall of a tree, near the fork of Patuxent.

We had Yesterday a violent Storm of Snow; and in the Evening one John Pugsley, a stay maker on the North side of Severn, going home from a wedding, lost himself within a few yards of a house, and was this morning found dead.

March 7. On 27th Feb. one John Currey, being at the house of Mr. Matthew Dockery in Queen Anne's County, fell out of the window, and was so seriously injured that his life was despaired of.

April 25. Some weeks Ago, one Daniel Sturges, at Matapony Hundred in Worcester County, was shot dead by a person unknown.

May 2. On the 3rd of last month, George Mason, Esq., of Virginia was married to Miss Ann Eilbeck, daughter of Mr. William Eilbeck, merchant, in Charles County, in this Province, a young Lady of distinguishing merit and beauty, and a handsome fortune.

Last Week died in Baltimore County, in the 54th year of his age, after a long and lingering indisposition, Dr. George Buchanan, one of the Representatives, and for above 20 years a Magistrate, of that County; a gentleman of a fair honest character.

June 6. Last Sunday [June 3] one William Collings a very orderly servant of Mr. Paitt's accidentally drowned.

July 11. On Wednesday morning last [July 12] died at his house in Oxford, Mr. Robert Morris, Merchant, Agent and Factor of Foster Cunliffe, Esq., of Liverpool [a long account from which it would appear that Mr. Morris was wounded by a piece of wadding from a cannon and subsequently died of septicemia.]

July 25. Some few days since, James Mitchell, a laboring man of this place, going out of a flat into Rappahannock River in Virginia, got entangled in a great number of sea nettles and was drowned.

August 1. Some few days since Aquila Disney was knocked overboard by a jibing boom, and drowned near Love Point.

August 22. On Tuesday last week [Aug. 14] Capt. William Chilton of the Ship Frederick, lately arrived in Patuxent from Europe, riding the road towards Port Tobacco, with another gentleman, was seized with a violent fever supposed to be caused by the extreme beat, of which he died in less than an hour. He was buried at Port Tobacco.

August 29. About a Fortnight ago, the Dwelling House of Mrs. Lucy Hatton, near Piscattaway, was burned. Mrs. Hatton escaped, but, attempting to return and rescue her two sons, she perished with them.

A few Days ago died in an advanced Age, Mr. John Magruder of Prince George's County, a Gentleman who was formerly for many Tears in the Commission of the Peace, and one of the Representatives for that County.

September 5. Yesterday Evening, Dr. David Ross of Bladensburg, was married to Miss Ariana Brice, Eldest daughter of John Brice, Esq., of this Place, a young Gentlewoman endowed with every qualification to render a man happy in the Conjugal State.

September 19. On Thursday last [Sept. 13] the Lady of his Excellency our Governor, was happily delivered of a daughter.

Capt. Walter Smith, in the Newall, is arrived in Patuxent from Glasgow, but last from Hamburg.

October 10. Last week died at Lower Marlborough Capt. John Simmons, of the Ship Revolution, now lying in Patuxent; a gentleman well respected by those who knew him.

October 17. On Sunday Night last [Oct. 14] Died of a Pleurisy, at Baltimore Town, in Baltimore County, in the fifty third year of his age, Capt. Darby Lux, a gentleman of known integrity and ability in the Several Offices of Public Life, both as a Magistrate and Representative of his County. . . .

November 14th. We hear from St. Mary's County, of the Death of Madam Plater, the virtuous Consort of the Hon. Col. George Plater, on the thirtieth of October past; a Gentlewoman much esteemed when living, and whose death is greatly lamented.

About a fortnight since, Capt. Meshack Botfield of Talbot County, riding out in a chaise with his wife, was accidentally flung out and much wounded, so that he died soon after; his wife was likewise much hurt, but is recovered. He has left an elder brother Shadrach, and a younger brother Abednego.

We hear from Chester Town, that last week died there Mr. Charles Peale, who was formerly Deputy Secretary of the General Post Office in London.

1751. February 6. Last week died of violent fevers, aged about 25, at his Seat on Patuxent River, in Calvert County, Mr. John Rousby, eldest Son of the late Honorable John Rousby, Esq., Collector of his Majesty's Customs for the District of Patuxent, deceased, a Gentleman possessed of a very affluent fortune, and whose death is much lamented. He has left a sorrowful widow and one child.

Monday night last [Feb. 3] died in Prince George's County, near Nottingham, much regretted by all who knew him, Mr. William Sim, Merchant, who has left a very good character. His death is supposed to have been occasioned by some ill treatment he met with from one about 6 weeks ago.

February 20. On Friday the 15th instant, in the 57th or 58th year of his age, died after a very short indisposition, Doctor James Somervell at his house in Calvert County.

March 6. On Wednesday last [Feb. 27] died, at his house in Upper Marlborough, after a short illness of two days, Mr. Daniel Carroll, a gentleman of great worth and esteem, and whose death is very justly regretted.

Friday last [March 1] Died in Caecil County, aged 17, Master Ephraim Augustine Harman, who was the only surviving son of Col. Ephraim Augustine Harman, and heir to Bohemia Manor, a very fine estate in Caecil County, which we hear by his death, falls to his sister.

March 20. Last Thursday [March 14] at Elk Ridge, one Jeremiah Swift, a Convict Servant murdered two boys, aged respectively 9 and 11 years, and girl of 14, all children of his Master Mr. John Hatherly. [Their names were John age 12, Benjamin, age 10, (who was not killed, but recovered) and Elizabeth, age 14. Cf. Md. Gazette, 10 April, 1751].

Yesterday the Eldest son of Mr. Suton of Kent Island, aged about 19, and Nathaniel Conner, a ferryman, were drowned while crossing the bay by the capsizing of their boat in a squall.

April 3. Donald M'Kennie, Mr. William Digges' overseer, found murdered in Baltimore County on the 29th of March. [Cf. Md. Gaz. 10 April]

April 17. About 10 Days ago was found the body of Mr. Abraham Woodall of this place. He had been drowned about 5 or 6 weeks.

May 22. By the mail from Virginia, just come in, we have an account that a few days ago died there Elliott Benger, Esq., Sole Deputy Post Master General of all his Majesty's Dominions in America.

June 19. Last Thursday [June 13] Mr. Christopher Carnan, Merchant, was married, at Baltimore Town, to Miss Elizabeth North (Eldest Daughter of Capt. Robert North, Deceased), a young Gentlewoman blessed with a pretty fortune, good sense, and amiable person.

July 10. The latest papers from England, are not yet come to our hands; but we are informed they contain the Melancholy account of the death of Lord Baltimore, Proprietor of this Province, at his Seat at Erith in Kent, on the 23rd Day of April last, after a lingering illness. And is succeeded in title and estate by his only son Frederick, now Lord Baltimore, a minor.

July 24th. Last Friday [July 19] William Wright, a seafaring man, fell from a sloop's Bowsprit near our dock and was drowned.

August 14th. A few Days ago, one Richard Walden, of this place, fell overboard in Bohemia River, and was drowned.

August 28. On Wednesday last [Aug. 21] Mr. Henry Hill, only son of Mr. Joseph Hill, was killed by a fall in his tobacco house. He was about 25 Years of age, and left a widow and a young child. He was buried on Saturday the 24th inst. [N. B. Long notice, and full account of the accident.] The same day, died, after a lingering indisposition in Prince George's County, the venerable, aged and reverend Mr. Jacob Henderson, for many years Rector of St. Barnaby's Parish in that County. . . .

September 4th. Last Saturday afternoon [Sept. 1] two ship carpenters, Johnson Jackson, and Owen, were drowned in Kent Narrows.

October 9. We learn from Talbot County that on the 24th of September last, after a lingering illness, died Mr. Perry Benson, who for many years has served as Magistrate in that County. . . .

October 16. Sunday Evening last [Oct. 13] Mr. Beale Bordley of this place, Merchant, was married to Miss Margaret Chew, an agreeable well accomplished young Lady, with a good fortune.

November 27. On Wednesday morning last [Nov. 20] Sarah Clark was murdered by her husband John Clark [long account.]

December 4th. On Saturday last [Nov. 30] died in Prince George's County after a short illness of 20 hours, Col. Edward Sprigg, who was for more than 22 Years past one of the Representatives for that County in the House of Delegates of this Province; was for several Years the Honorable Speaker of that House; and presided as Chief in the Commission of the Peace for the said County for some years, and continued in that station until he died.

Maryland AHGP

Source: Maryland Historical Magazine, Quarterly, Volume 1, Baltimore, 1906


Please Come Again!!

This page was last updated Thursday, 11-Feb-2016 22:06:00 EST

 Copyright 2011-2024 AHGP - Judy White
The American History and Genealogy Project.
Enjoy the work of our webmasters, provide a link, do not copy their work.